The haruwa–charuwa system is a forced-labour system based on debt bondage, prevalent in the agricultural sector of the eastern Terai region in Nepal. Haruwa means "forced tiller" and are usually adult males, while charuwa means "forced cattle-herder" and are usually women and children.[1] The victims of this bonded labour system are usually dalit families, most commonly from the Musahar caste. Due to landlessness and poverty, they are forced into service of landowner families under slavery-like conditions.[2] The haruwa–charuwa system is similar to the Haliya and Kamaiya systems of western Nepal.[2][3]

Another term, kodarwa, is often used to refer to strong men who cultivate the lands of landlords for wages or payment of debt, similar to haruwas.[4] The written ......

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